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The POCT devices currently under development (Applications)

High-speed genetic analysis device

 

Overview

When a single base mutation is observed in the genomic sequence of a species population, and the frequency is 1% or more, this is called a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP).



Fig. 20

As an example, the human genome size is about 3 billion base pairs, and SNP is observed at a rate of about one per approximately 1,330 base pairs. Now you can examine the genetic background by using these SNP data, and with respect to genetic diseases with known responsible genes, you can also find out in advance how likely it is to develop the disease in the future.

Some examples of SNP that have been studied for a while in order to be used for treatment purposes are drug-metabolizing enzyme genes and membrane trafficking protein genes, but research has progressed as far as being able to explain individual differences in drug efficacy and side effects. That is, if there is a SNP that can lower the activity in these genes, drug concentration in the blood can be kept high for a longer time causing a stronger effect, over-manifestation or causing toxic intermediary metabolites to accumulate and increasing the risk of side effects.

Conversely, when there is a SNP that does not let drugs work well, treatment such as increasing the dosage will be necessary. Therefore, by testing for such gene SNPs prior to deciding the dosage, and by determining the dosage suitable to a certain type of gene, side effects can be avoided, and increase in efficiency of the therapeutic effect can be expected. Recently, even in the development stage of a new drug, it is common to know in advance SNP information, such as enzyme genes and transporter genes, and personalized treatment using SNP has become a reality.

By using such SNP information, we can avoid causing suffering to patients due to unwanted side effects, and by reducing effort to deal with side effects or inappropriate medication we can contribute to reduction of medical costs.

 

Our solution

The SNP analysis that uses conventional genetic analysis required a relatively long analysis time of at least 1 hour to several hours. Therefore, when it was necessary to administer drugs in an emergency, for example, and it was not possible to find out side effects data in advance, this method was inefficient.

The SNP analysis system using our CAs-CHIP requires only about 15 minutes to do the analysis. Therefore, cases such as determining the optimum dose of a drug in an emergency surgery, determining metastasis of tumor during cancer surgery or diagnosing anticancer drug sensitivity and resistance, or being able to quickly determine the potential efficacy and side effects of drugs to be prescribed to outpatients are several potential wide usages of the system.



Fig. 21
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Development status

Our CAs-CHIP platform has made possible primary SNP analysis of genes involved in drug metabolism. Currently, we are in the stage of investigating the correlation of the dose and the patient SNP with respect to a particular drug, and based on this as a model case, we are seeking partners and a development environment for achieving personalized treatment for a variety of drugs.



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